Regenerative Medicine

Type and Feature of Stem Cells

Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells

Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSC) are adult stem cells present in adipose tissue and found in 2001 by Dr. Marc Hedrick, the founder of Cytori Therapeutics.

What are Stem Cells?

Stem Cells
Feature 1

Have the ability to grow (differentiate) into specific cells

Feature 2

Have the ability to reproduce in an undifferentiated state

Type of Stem Cells

Embryonic Stem Cells(ES cell)
Adult Stem Cells
  • ES cells are collected from an embryo from fertilization of an egg to formation of a fetus (5 to 6 days after fertilization).
  • Because of their ability to grow into any type of cells in the body, ES cells are also called pluripotent stem cells.
  • ES cells may grow infinitely in culture.
  • The establishment and use of human ES cells are associated with bioethical problems.
  • Adult stem cells collected from human tissues are in an undifferentiated state.
  • Found in the bone marrow, blood, cornea and retina in the eyes, liver, and skin; adult stem cells are master cells that form individual tissues.
  • There are bone marrow stem cells, hematopoietic stem cells, and mesenchymal stem cells.
  • Adult stem cells are much less likely to induce rejection than ES cells collected from another person’s fertilized egg.
Embryonic Stem Cells
Adult Stem Cells
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Comparison of Cell Sources for Adult Stem Cells

The probability of stem cells is much higher in adipose tissue than in any other cell source. This indicates that stem cells are abundant in adipose tissue. Another advantage is that a substantial number of fresh stem cells may be used soon after collection from adipose tissue without culture.

Cell source Frequency of stem cells Culture for preparation of high-density stem cells
Bone marrow Slightly high May be necessary
Skin High Necessary
Cord blood Very low Necessary
Placenta Unconfirmed Necessary
Skeletal muscle High Necessary
Adipose tissue Very high Unnecessary
Amniotic fluid Unconfirmed Unnecessary
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Effect of Stem Cells in Adipose Transplantation

Effect of Stem Cells in Adipose Transplantation

Fresh stem cells were added to adipose tissue, and the residual volume of adipose tissue was compared. At 6 and 9 months, the residual volume was about 2.5 times as great as that in mice receiving adipose tissue alone.

(Comparison in an experiment with inbred mice)

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